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CLQ - The Luxembourg qualifications framework

Following the adoption of the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on the establishment of the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning, the Ministry of Education, Children and Youth ans the Ministry of Higher Education and Research presented their report on referencing the Luxembourg Qualifications Framework (Cadre Luxembourgeois des Qualifications - CLQ) to the EQF in 2012 to the EQF's Advisory Group, which accepted it.

The CLQ is intended to serve as a non-binding guidance framework for individuals, providers of education and training and for the employment market. It will enable individuals to rank their qualifications in relation to other qualifications, with a view to lifelong learning.

The present version of the CLQ referencing report refers only to the formal system of education and training; this is currently in a state of flux as it is moving towards a system expressed in terms of learning outcomes. Once this change is complete, the Grand Duchy will present a new report reflecting an adjusted framework for lifelong learning, and work will begin on considering the inclusion of non-formal training.


Terminological accuracy

Following preliminary discussions concerning the development of a Luxembourg qualifications framework, it has been decided, from a terminological standpoint, that the French-language title of the framework should read "Cadre [luxembourgeois] des qualifications" and not, as in the relevant official EU texts (including the Recommendation of 23 April 2008), "Cadre [luxembourgeois] des certifications", since the French word "qualifications" includes the notion inherent in the French word "certifications" and establishes the link with the world of work.

The CLQ contains information on 'learning outcomes', i.e. what the holders of a given qualification are supposed to know, understand, and be able to do. It does not provide direct access to any other qualification or confer any particular rights.

Levels of the Luxembourg Qualifications Framework

LevelDefinition within the framework of the formal education and training system
1Certificate of successful completion of the lower cycle of general secondary education
2Vocational Capacity Certificate (Certificat de capacité professionnelle - CCP)
3Vocational Aptitude Diploma (Diplôme d'aptitude professionnelle - DAP)
Certificate of successful completion of the intermediate cycle of general secondary education
Certificate of successful completion of 5 years of classical secondary education
4Technician's Diploma
General secondary school leaving diploma
Classical secondary school leaving diploma
5Master Craftsmanship (Brevet de maîtrise)
Higher Technician Certificate (Brevet de technicien supérieur)
Specialised Higher Technician Certificate (Brevet de technicien supérieur spécialisé)
6Bachelor's degree
7Master's degree

Level descriptors

The Luxembourg qualifications framework currently involves a systematic description of qualifications within the national education and training system. Acquisition of those qualifications is confirmed and standardised by the obtaining of a degree, diploma or other certificate issued by a competent body.

The framework includes a general description of the qualification profiles, learning outcomes and, for levels 5 to 8 regarding higher education, in addition to the above elements, formal aspects, including the volume in ECTS.

The framework is based on the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong education and training; levels 5 to 8 are also linked to the Qualification Framework of the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA).

It defines, by way of descriptors, what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completion of a learning process. Three categories of descriptors are used to describe learning outcomes relating to a given qualification in a generic and non-disciplinary way, and to classify and specify those outcomes.

Three categories of descriptors

The framework distinguishes the following three categories of descriptors: knowledge, skills, and attitude.


The result of the assimilation of knowledge through learning and training.

Knowledge is the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of study or work; assimilation is defined as the process by which knowledge or know-how is integrated by the learner.


The ability to apply knowledge in order to complete tasks and solve problems.

As in the European Framework, skills may be cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) or practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments).


The use of personal and social abilities in work or study situations and in professional and personal development.

Personal competence is characterised by a sense of autonomy and responsibility enabling the person concerned to adopt a critical approach to his or her own actions and those of others; it also allows persons to develop, either through study or through practical activities. Social competence is characterised by a sense of autonomy and responsibility enabling the person concerned to work with others and to take the interests of others into account. For levels 5 to 8, these descriptors are specified as encompassing communication skills and the ability to make judgements.

Last update - 17.08.2022
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