International mobility in apprenticeships - Focus on long-term mobility Luxembourg
Cedefop Refernet - 06/08/2020
Despite the general openness to internationalisation and several well-implemented initiatives to foster international mobility for students, trainees and young volunteers, international mobility (particularly long-term mobility) of apprentices is currently a niche phenomenon.
The Luxembourgish VET system is embedded in the secondary educational system. It is part of technical secondary education(1).The VET organisation is regulated by the National Education Code (SCL, 2019a).
There are three different programmes in the technical secondary education:
- the technical programmes;
- the vocational programmes leading to a vocational capacity certificate (CCP) or a vocational aptitude diploma (DAP);
- the technician’s programme (DT).
The dual system is an important feature of vocational programmes and technician’s programmes, which implies a strong relationship between school-based education and work-based learning in enterprises. All VET programmes leading to a CCP and most of the programmes leading to a DAP are offered under apprenticeship scheme. In school year 2018/19, five out of 20 DT programmes were offered under apprenticeship scheme.
Between 2011/12 and 2016/17, vocational programmes (DAP and CCP) lost their attractiveness,their share on the total number of learners in technical secondary education decreased from 32.5% to 27%. The share of VET learners in technician programmes has also slightly decreased from 25.2% to 24.2% (MENJE, 2018).
The Luxembourgish IVET system offers, in 2019,128 IVET tracks related to occupations and trades. Furthermore, a yearly defined number of cross-border apprenticeship programmes have been established upon bilateral agreements for qualifications which have too small numbers of students to provide a curriculum at national level. The school-based part of the apprenticeship is carried out in a neighbouring country, while practical training takes place in an
enterprise in Luxembourg. While cross-border apprenticeship
currently concerns a limited number of professions and small
effectives of learners, they can provide some evidence about
enabling factors for (long-term) mobility of apprentices.
(1) Following the Law of 29 August 2017 (SCL, 2017d) on secondary education "general secondary education" is nationally referred to as "classical secondary education" (éducation secondaire classique ESC) and prepares for higher education while "technical secondary education" is referred to as "general secondary education" (éducation secondaire générale ESG) and gives access to higher education and/or to the labour market.